I remember a China where the streets were full of bicycles. I remember peddling in virtual seas of thousands of other cyclists, how rush hour was a critical mass of bicycles zooming every which way, where bike lanes became roaring highways. The bicycle was the top commuter vehicle in the country, and there were hundreds of [...]
I remember a China where the streets were full of bicycles. I remember peddling in virtual seas of thousands of other cyclists, how rush hour was a critical mass of bicycles zooming every which way, where bike lanes became roaring highways. The bicycle was the top commuter vehicle in the country, and there were hundreds of millions of them in use from the Shanghai to Xingjiang, Harbin to Nanning.
This was in 2005. These days are no more.
The bicycle as a commuter vehicle is going extinct in China. The ebike, or electric bicycle, is taking its place.
Please watch this video before reading the rest of the article.
What is an ebike?
An electric bicycle is exactly what it sounds like: a two wheel vehicle run off a battery powered motor. They can attain speeds up to 48km an hour and can travel up to 100km on a full charge. Typically, the max speed of ebikes is capped by various municipalities in China at 20km per hour, but many manufacturers often make it easy for customers to remove the governor and make their bikes go much faster than this.
People charge up their electric bicycles by plugging them in at docks offered by their apartment complexes or remove the batteries and take them up to their homes to charge. Unlike electric car batteries, the ones for ebikes can be plugged into a standard socket. The Achilles heal of electric bicycles in China is that most are powered off of lead acid batteries — which are far cheaper to manufacture than the lithium batteries that are almost standard on ebikes in Europe and the USA. These lead batteries are prone to losing their charge easily and often need to be replaced yearly.
There are a few different kinds of ebikes in China: some still have pedals attached and can be operated in conjunction with human power, some look like mini-scooters and are 100% battery powered, and others look just like mopeds and go just about as fast. Chinese law generally separates an ebike from an electric moped by weight: an electric bicycle weights under 40 lbs. But, for all practical purposes, they are virtually the same vehicle — the latter just goes a little faster and requires a license to operate.
The cheapest ebikes can be purchased for a couple hundred dollars, while more expensive models retail at five or six hundred bucks. In all, ebikes are thought of as being a cheap form of urban transport, and once purchased, the cost of running one is estimated at only 21 cents per day (source: China Signost).
China’s ebike revolution
“Motorcycles are too dangerous, cars are too expensive, public transportation is too crowded and pedal bikes leave you too tired.” According to an article in Time Magazine this is the reason so many Chinese people have chosen electric bicycles as their prime means of urban transportation.
To date, there are over 140 million ebikes on the streets of China — which is double the amount of automobiles in the country. These electric bicycles are literally everywhere: clogging up the bike lanes, buzzing over the sidewalks, and criss crossing in and out of traffic in the streets. The electric bikes move like packs of locusts, enveloping and zipping around anything that stands in their path, whether it be human, animal, car, or bicycler. There are few rules for operating ebikes, no license is required to drive one, and no registration process is required to own one: you just buy one from the store, hop on, and go.
“There are two rules for driving an ebike: 1) never look behind you, and 2) when you make a turn just go out into traffic and don’t stop for anything,” an electric bicycle riding friend in Taizhou explained. Ebikes are driven as though they are bicycles, but they are made to go far faster and the drivers seemingly have less control. Two or three thousand people are killed each year in ebike related accidents across China, and it’s easy to see how this happens: people tend drive them without much regard for mortality. They quickly weave in and out of traffic, crossing between bike lanes, the road, and sidewalks at their discretion. It is common for two or more people to be riding on a single bike –sometimes you even spot entire families packed tightly onto one. Small children are often placed between the legs of the driver — sometimes sitting on a stool placed on the deck — and larger kids are balanced on the back. Nobody wears a helmet.
One of the selling points of ebikes is that their motors make very little noise. This is great if you consider the decrease in noise pollution, but horrible if you’re a pedestrian or another driver who doesn’t hear the ebike that is approaching fast from behind you. But, all too often, the decrease in engine noise is made up for by the incessant honking of horns that seems to be an integral part of operating one of these vehicles.
Over 10 cities in China have already banned or issued restrictions on the use of electric bicycles on grounds that they have become a public hazard.
The change over from conventional bicycles to electric ones has been phenomenal. In under a decade China went from being a country of bicyclists to one of ebike drivers. There are over two thousand ebike manufacturers in the country, and they pump out millions and millions more each year. Now only the dirt poor or bicycle enthusiasts chose to peddle.
The environmental impacts of electric bicycles
There are now over 140 million ebikes buzzing around China, and this is being made out as not only a transportation revolution but an ecological one as well. Electricity powered transportation is generally viewed as being an environmentally superior option to gas fueled internal combustion engines. To an extent, this is true: ebikes and other electric transport do not have any exhaust. As anyone who has ever been to the cities of Southeast Asia or India probably knows, a population tutting around on two stroke motorcycles creates an air quality catastrophe. I’ve been through many cities that were turned into colossal smoke bombs due to simple fact that tens of thousands of people in them were riding motorcycles that belched exhaust.
But electric transportation not without air polluting qualities. 80% of electricity in China comes from the burning of coal. In the end, most ebike transportation is powered by fossil fuels.
Though I’m sure that the per kilometer fossil fuel expenditure of electric bicycles does not compare with their gas powered brethren, another point to consider is that electric bicycles are not replacing cars and motorcycles en masse: they are replacing the human powered bicycles. People are leaving behind a form of transportation that burns calories supplied by food and choosing one that is fueled by electricity. In point, ebikes demand far more energy resources than the vehicles they are booting off the roads, perhaps they are not the environmental success story they’re billed to be.
Though the major knife sticking into the heart of the “ebikes are good for the environment claim” is that the ones that are most popular in China are currently being powered by lead acid batteries which need to be replaced every year or two. This creates an environmental hazard in their production as well as their disposal. Think about it, up to 140 million lead batteries are being produced and disposed in China of every 1 -2 years for ebikes alone.
China clearly leads the global electric transportation race by far — not only are ebicycles popular in the country, but electric cars, taxis, and buses are on the rise as well — but there is still a major ecological toll that is taking place in this equation, especially when electricity is derived here from coal, dams, and nuclear power plants. But if you ask me my preference between a society that relies on the internal combustion engine or electric power for transportation I’m siding with electricity without a thought — who would rather choke on exhaust? — but electric transportation is perhaps not the great leap forward it’s sold to be.
Like so much in modern China, transitions often happen fast and leave little trace of the way things use to be. The mass move from bicycles to ebikes really only happened within a handful of years, and the transition was so complete that it is now difficult to tell that this was once a country that use to peddle itself to work each day. Something special in this country was lost as the most efficient and cleanest form of transportation in human history was traded for one with batteries, buttons, accelerators, and a larger pollution and resource usage footprint. Bicycles in China are now for teenage boys and the very poor — as it is in most other parts of the world. The ebike has taken over.