Nanhui is a full scale, independent new city that is being completely built from scratch 60 km outside of downtown Shanghai. It is being constructed to house 800,000 people, but is currently in the ghost city stage of development: hanging somewhere between being deserted and coming alive. This is the story of what I found there.
- Nanhui, China’s Unbelievable Ghost City on the Coast
- Look Inside China’s Medical City
- The Myth of China’s Big and Crowded Cities
- Can Chinese Shopping Malls Become Centers of Culture?
- What Life is Like Inside A Shanghai Migrant Worker Village
- The Bermuda Triangle of the East Mystery Continues
- What Happens When China’s Largest Lake Disappears
- Why I’m Thankful for the Twigs, Cocoons, and Cicada Moltings in my Soup
- What Did Travel Change? The Life of a Chinese Wandering Musician
- Baby, Light My Pyre: On Dying in Varanasi
- Fang Od and the Traditional Art of Kalinga Tattoo
- How A 4.5 Million Person City Was Named A Ghost Town
- The Future of the Miao in the Face Of Mass Relocation and Assimilation
Renovating Traditional Chinese Buildings as an Alternative to Destroying Them?
Can China's few remaining historic communities continue existing in the face of rampant progress?
Demolition Of Ancient Communities Still Going Strong In China
The ancient neighborhood of meandering alleyways and centuries-old grey brick homes that occupied this area for hundreds of years had already been demolished, cleared away --effectively erased from the slate of modern China. There was only one reminder that this ancient neighborhood ever existed at all, and that was the house I was standing in.
Why Starbucks In China Is So Expensive
Starbucks in China is expensive, but they are not just selling fancy lattes, funky teas, and crappy coffee, they are selling what the Chinese really want.
- The Free For All Of Big Hostel Culture
- THIS Is The Ideal Travel Work Skill Set
- Missionaries, Jesus, Brad Pitt, and the Fak Fak, Papua Honey Trap
A Journey To China’s Italian Ghost Town
A look at Shanghai's strange Italian ghost city.
Fenghuang: Another Ancient Chinese Tourist Trap
For hundreds of years Fenghuang was a backwater of China, now it's one of the countries biggest tourist desinations. How did this happen?
A Look At The Two Million Person Relocation In Guizhou, China
2 million people are being cleared out of the hills of Guizhou and moved to cities. But is this really happening?
How To Use Google Image Search To Build BackLinks
How I turn copyright violations into backlinks.
How I Make Money From My Blogs Via Advertising
How I make -- and don't make -- money from my blogs through advertising.
Shanghai’s Dutch Ghost Town
Shanghai's One City, Nine Towns project also has a Dutch town, find out why it's been dubbed, "Such a pity."
- China’s German Ghost City
- The Benefits Of Using A Tablet For Travel Blogging
- Ghost Town? Replica Town? Shanghai’s British Town Remains A Facade
Inside Manzhouli, China’s Russian City
It is called "In Manchuria," and this name about says it all. Manzhouli is China's Russian city, a border town that straddles east and west.
- Mongolian Culture Struggles To Survive In Changing Inner Mongolia
- The Film and the Reality: Inside Hong Kong’s Chungking Mansions
Spicy Food and Revolutionaries in Hunan
As Mao once said: people who consume diets heavy in hot peppers are natural revolutionaries. An exploration into the "hot pepper spirit" in Hunan.
Fun Sally — Getting It On With Peanut Butter in Laos
Fun Sally, pronounced Phongsali, is not feeling the love. She possesses a disdain for me and every other bone-rattled traveller disgorged from the dusty mini-van arrivals terminal onto the chicken scratched road into town.
Mountains And Rivers Without End: Zhangjiajie Forest And Wulingyuan UNESCO Site
I decided to find the place that influenced Chinese landscape painting, so I went to Zhangjiajie in Wulingyuan.
China’s Obsession With Foreigners And The Experience Of Kanye West
Living in China made a 10 year old Kanye West feel like a celebrity, and the attention that foreigners receive here has yet to simmer down. Why does China obsess over foreigners?
- The Catalysts of Chinese Counterculture: Ryan Lee, Traveling Musician
An Awful Life On A Remote Tropical Island
When the solitude of a South Sea paradise takes a turn for the awful.
China Demolishes An Old Neighborhood, Then Builds A Replica Of It
An old neighborhood in central Taizhou is having its 100th anniversary this year. To commemorate the centennial it is being demolished.
Hangin’ With Charlie In ‘Nam
A hero falls in Tua Hai. Falls out of his chair, that is. Too much Tiger Beer was his reward.
- A Date With Wild Beasts In Nepal’s Chitwan National Park
Without A Dime In Cyprus, Vagabonding The Hard Way
Left without a dime (seriously) on Cyprus, what's a vagabond to do? Find out here.
Looking For Freedom From The Chinese Education System
What are high school students doing getting out of class at 10:30 on a Sunday night? Take a look at life inside China's education gulag.
On Being Dead In Ürgüp, or How I Survived Abroad Without Money
What would you do if you were traveling in a foreign country and all of a sudden had all of your money taken from you?
How The Chinese Deal With Bird Flu
Bird flu has again torn across China, people are dying, and new cases are being confirmed almost daily. So why does everything seem so normal?
The Fall Of The Hong Kong Lunch Singer
As Hong Kong's economy rises, many of it's old traditions are fading away. Lunch singing, a type of lounge act that is performed in eateries, is one such tradition that's on the verge of disappearing for good.
- China’s Manhattan Knock-Off Aspires To Be Bigger And Better Than The Real Thing
Easter In China
Though regulated, Christianity in China thrives. Going to Easter mass was as easy as walking through an open door.
A Journey To China’s Largest Ghost City
Earlier this month, 60 Minutes claimed that Zhengzhou's New District is a ghost city, but that's not what I found.
- Absurd Racism Claim And Attacks On Chinese Culture
A Dispatch From The Other Side Of A Shit Ditch – Ranong, Thailand
A look into the life of a Burmese Refugee in Thailand.
Welcome To Xinyang,The Chinese Ghost City That’s Not Even Built Yet
A massive exhibition center stood vacant next to an equally desolate museum and theater, forests of high-rises reached up into the sky but sheltered nobody, and a sea of uninhabited buildings stretched out in all directions as far as I could see. I was in Xinyang's new district, in the south of China's Henan province, [...]
Not Deserted! This Chinese Ghost City Is Peopled
There were people in that city. There were walking on the sidewalks, driving cars, riding electric bicycles, talking on mobile phones, slurping noodles in restaurants, sipping cappuccinos in cafes, playing with children in parks, and doing exercises on the stadium's track. There were people in that city, but there shouldn't have been: I was in Dantu, one of China's [...]
The Filipino Happy Spirit
With keener set of eyes and a heart more passionate for history, culture and travel, I scanned the surroundings of Plaza Miranda in Quiapo. I had been in the surrounding areas many times but only once in this square. Aside from seeing the famous Quiapo Church, I can’t remember what else I saw back then. [...]
The Filipino Jeepney And The Men Who Drive Them
When the Americans left the Philippines after World War II, they left behind hundreds of their Willys jeeps that Filipinos reinvented to become the passenger-type jeepneys. From then on, the jeepney has evolved and served as the most popular form of public transportation. Like the other common Filipinos, I take the jeepney everyday. Its omnipresence [...]
Bali’s Markets: Can The Traditional Be Super Too?
Above and below the cloudy surreptitious dream of Wall Street’s market, the stars are brilliantly lit and the actual market thrives. It’s cool, dark, and tranquil here this Balinese morning. Well before the crack of dawn, the first pick-up truck stocked with fresh fruits and vegetables softly enters the parking lot of Ubud’s traditional market. [...]
Imported Foods: A Band Aid For China’s Contaminated Food Problem?
The international food aisle is something that's becoming more and more popular in supermarkets throughout China. Where they once were obscure outside of the major cities, they have now become a common sight throughout the inner provinces. The expat communities here can pat themselves on the backs and proclaim that their tastes are being catered too, but [...]
Survival of the Harmonious: Balinese Youth On Their Hinduism
At about 10 a.m. Wayan walks out of her family’s house with sarong neatly wrapped around her thin adolescent waist balancing a woven basket abundantly full of offerings to the gods, perfumed and smoking gracefully. She looks natural, and her movements are as deliberate as anyone who is relaxed with their tasks. On her face [...]
China’s Air Pollution Index: Just Like Checking The Weather
Air pollution in China has gotten so bad that it's become an element of weather. You get up in the morning, sit down with a cup of coffee, check the weather, check the smog. Like weather reports, the air pollution report changes by the day. The strange thing is that the two are not coordinated, [...]
10 Things You Didn’t Know About: Hawaii
Hawaii is known for it's pristine beaches, tropical climate, vibrant culture, booming tourism industry, and unique flora and fauna, but there is another side to this place that outsiders tend not to know about. On a recent visit to Hawaii, Tiffany Zappulla dove into some of the less publicized aspects of this vacation epicenter, and [...]
Balut: The Infamous Filipino Delicacy
They gagged, they choked, they puked. Many foreigners, businessmen and travelers alike have defied squeamishness and bravely tried to eat balut, only to fail and prove themselves not as adventurous as they thought themselves to be. Many foreigners have failed to conquer this notorious delicacy of the Philippines in their attempt to immerse themselves deeper into [...]
The Traveling Chinese Opera
I was lured in by the music, by the singing, the thumping of wooden blocks, the plucking of strings, and the striking of gongs. It was the traveling Chinese opera.
8 Lessons Learned About Giving Birth In China
Having a baby in a foreign country can be difficult challenge in most countries, but it’s a extremely difficult challenge in China. I should know, my wife and I had baby #3 here in China a few weeks ago.
Airpocalypse! Another Smog Storm Covers China
The east of China is again engulfed in a blanket of smog so think in places you can hardly see down the street. Children have been ordered to remain indoors, and the people have been ordered to take measures to protect their health.
Shenzhen, China: Where Your Stuff Is Made
The World's Factory grew up with the globalization era in the Pearl River Delta of China's Guangdong province, but what is its future?
Macau: Welcome To The Most Crowded City On Earth
Amid all the overcrowding, traffic, and congestion of Macau there is a hidden, genuine, old-China essence.
Zhuhai, China: The Vices of a Boom Town
When booze, girls, and people from around the world with too much money come together in a SEZ boom town you get China's take on Pattaya.
New South China Mall: An Update On The World’s Largest (Ghost) Mall
It was supposed to have been the greatest shopping center ever built on the face of the earth. They built it and nobody came. The New South China Mall is still 99% deserted.
A New Model for Development: A Talk With Ernesto Sirolli
Ernesto Sirolli recently delivered a powerful TED talk where he pointed out the failings of international aid and proposed a new model for development. He now shares more of this vision of facilitating entrepreneurship around the world with Vagabond Journey.
China’s Knock-Off Cities and Western Architectural Copycatting, What Does This Mean?
Throughout Chinese history the appropriation and reproduction of architectural styles has occurred. Today, this copycatting is being taken to extremes.
A Visit to Hallstatt, China: An Austrian Village Cloned
For the first time in history and entire town has been replicated. In China's Guangdong province there now stands a clone of Hallstatt, Austria.
What Visa-Free Entry Really Means
One of the biggest misnomers in travel is the term "visa free entry." Visa free entry only rarely exists, but this term is thrown around like it's a widespread and common phenomenon. It's only visa free entry when you can enter a country without having your passport stamped. Some examples: Americans and Canadians don't need [...]
Christmas in China
China absorbs other cultures and makes them its own, and Christmas is no way immune to this appropriation.
4 Easy Tips for Filling out Immigration Arrival Forms Correctly
When you go to enter a country it is common for you to have to fill out a little form in advance to give to the immigration inspector along with your passport. This form just collects some of the basic information about you, as well as a few details about how you arrived to the [...]
Religion in Kinmen, Taiwan
Religion is virtually ubiquitous on Taiwan's Kinmen Island, and it is an interesting mix of beliefs and faiths.
The Lady Coconut Vendor — People of the Philippines
A conversation with a coconut vendor as Christmas arrives in the Philippines.
Kinmen Island: China Without Communism?
Is Kinmen Island and the rest of Taiwan what China may have been like without communism?
Kinmen Island, Taiwan: What Is This Place?
Kinmen Island is an outpost of Taiwan which has been teetering precariously a few miles off the coast of mainland China for the past 60 years.
A Woman’s Worst Fear: OB/GYN in Korea
Navigating women's health in South Korea.
How to Engage and Appreciate All Places When Traveling
"Shanghai is just another city that's exactly like every other city. All there is here is shopping," spoke a Dutch student at a hostel in Shanghai. His compatriot, who was sitting nearby, nodded and agreed. I stumbled on my rebuttal, choked on my words, and shut up: if these two guys could not find the [...]
Prevent Against Being Scammed When Traveling
It is easy to be scammed when traveling. A good scam artist will know what you want in their country and how you want to be treated, then fill these two voids and take their commission. To prevent being taken in by scammers, first and foremost be aware of where you are and who you [...]
What is a Human Flesh Search?
The human flesh search has become a defacto public watchdog system in China that is geared to react against anti-social behavior, fight crime, and expose corruption.
Women in China: Professional Gender Lines, Work, and Family
An investigation into professional gender lines, the rise of salary women, the pressures of family role, and the "third gender."
China’s New Leaders Rise to Power as Beijing is Locked Down
Beijing is locked down as the CCP selects its new leaders. Heightened security, intensified censorship, and red arm band wearing citizen patrols remind us that the more China changes the more it stays the same.
China Selects It’s New Leaders Amid Scandal, Corruption, and the Year of the Dragon
China begins selecting its new leaders today. How? Nobody on the outside really knows.
Kinmen, We’re Not In China Anymore – Or Are We?
An enclave of Taiwan sits right off the coast of China. It's called Kinmen Island, and it sure is a strange little place.
Another Bridge Collapses in China
China's bridges are falling down. A look at 'tofu bridges" and other faulty construction projects.
Trekking to Morocco’s Highest Peak
A journey up Morocco's highest peak, Toubkal mountain.
- Huaxi, China: A Journey to the World’s Richest Village
Eastern China: One Big Metropolis? China’s New Cities
A look into China's super cities.
Why do the Chinese Hate the Japanese?
History is carried into the present as a wave of anti-Japanese sentiment has sweeps across China.
Anti-Japanese Protests Rock China
Two severed mannequin heads were skewered on top of bamboo pikes that were held by a couple of young protesters in the streets of Taizhou, a mid-size city three hours from Shanghai. The plastic heads had crossed out Japanese flags markered onto the cheeks and Chinese characters expressing various insults were drawn all over them. [...]
- China’s Traffic Crisis is a Population Density Problem
How to Prevent Against Being Pickpocketed
Tips on how to prevent against being pickpocketed when traveling. How to keep from being a victim of petty. street crime abroad.
- Food Safety and Quality in China
A City Claimed by the Sea: Surviving the Great East Japan Earthquake
On March 11, 2011 Japan trembled from the force of a 9.0 magnitude earthquake. Fifty-foot tsunamis rocked the northeastern coasts and demolished everything in their path. Homes and automobiles were thrown about like toys, gas lines ruptured, forests and debris burst into flames, and nuclear power plants were pushed to the brink of meltdown. What [...]
Traditional Communities Demolished as China Modernizes
"It's not a simple right or wrong, it's a whole new way of thinking." -Edward Burtynsky, from Manufactured Landscapes on the industrialization of China. TAIZHOU, China- At times it seems as if China is one colossal construction site. The old is being replaced with the new and the new is being replaced with the newer. The [...]
The Reality of China’s One Child Policy
I once took China's one child policy at face value: a one child policy would mean that people are only allowed to have a single child, right? It all made perfectly clear sense until my first incident of travel in China in 2005. I found that there were far more brothers and sisters than a [...]
ESL in the Fast Lane: Lessons in Teaching English in South Korea
With the summer hiring scene quickly approaching and a load of college graduates and other job seekers on the lookout for well-paying, yet stimulating, employment, thousands are flocking to ESL recruiters with opportunities in South Korea. Like most prospective teachers, before I went to Korea I had gathered the bulk of my “reliable” pre-arrival information from [...]
Hopping Trains in Australia
It was late summer in the southern hemisphere and I had been traveling in Australia for only two weeks when a friend told me about IronFest. Nothing sounded better to me than jousting, battle reenactments and blacksmithing in the Blue Mountains to the west of Sydney, so I was off. I bid my friends in [...]
Meerschaum Pipe Carving: Another Art Fading into History
Cardboard box sat upon cardboard box in stacks that rose up from the floor to nearly the ceiling of a meerschaum pipe workshop in Eskisehir, Turkey. They had been sitting there for what may as well have been ages, the workshop was nearly devoid of artisans, and I was informed sadly that because of the [...]
Snorri Helgason: Folk Music from Iceland
"Music chronicles the times: the feeling of the times, the emotion of the times," spoke Snorri Helgason while sipping from a mug of coffee inside of a Reykjavik cafe. "It just makes people feel good," he continued as he set down the mug, "that is what music does for me, and I hope my music does to others."
In his native Iceland, Snorri Helgason rose to stardom fast as the front man for the pop band Sprengjuhöllin. Their first album spent 27 weeks at #1 on the country's music charts. This is the story of how Helgason rose from the ashes after obtaining national stardom, and has taken his show on the road to stages all over the world.
Göbekli Tepe: the Rise of Agriculture, the Fall of the Nomad
The human was born a traveling animal. For over 100,000 years we walked across the great Savannas, made way through the jungles, camped in Arctic tundra, and hunted and foraged in the forests of this planet. Then, a little over 10,000 years ago, a blip in the timeline of our species, we started laying down our satchels, building our shelters with a sense of permanence, and began cultivating the grains and animals in our surroundings. This great event, perhaps the largest shift in human cultural evolution, happened around a great temple now called Göbekli Tepe in southeastern Turkey.
This is the ancient story of the rise of the farmer, the fall of the nomad.
One Culture, One Border, Two Very Different Societies: What is the Future of the Korean Peninsula?
A half century has now passed since Korea was bifurcated along the 38th Parallel, and the contending sides could not have developed along more opposing paths. As North Korea absconded under the cloak of a dictorial regime South Korea opened up to the West and is now booming with commerce. What was once a single culture is now two very different societies. What is the future of the Korean Peninsula? Can the two sides reunite, or are they now too different? Does anyone care anymore? With those who can even remember a unified Korea passing into old age and decreasing in number, vagabondjourny.com's Korean correspondent, Tiffany Zappulla, asks these questions.
- Life Working in the Informal Economy of Colombia
Whaling in Iceland: Tradition Under Siege
"Many NGOs and anti-whaling countries see the oceans as some sort of giant zoo or sanctuary. But we look upon the ocean as a resource which we have a right and obligation to utilize in a sustainable manner for both ourselves and future generations." -Tomas Heidar, Iceland's whaling commissioner "Whaling is part of our existence. If the EU [...]
Where are Soccer Balls Made? In Mongui, Colombia
MONGUI, Colombia- "What, do soccer balls grow naturally around here?" I proclaimed in exasperation while searching for a place to eat in Mongui. "I've seen five places selling just soccer balls and not one restaurant." When I was teetering on the verge of thinking that this little pueblo at the end of a road in [...]
Digital Nomad or Economic Refugee?
Are you a Digital Nomad or an Economic Refugee? BOGOTA, Colombia- Digital nomads can recognize each other on sight. This is not to say that there is a secret hand shake, a uniform, a badge, a club card, an insignia or any sort of physical identifier. No, digital nomads can recognize each other because they [...]
In Search of a Chinese Hermit
Visiting a Hermit and Not Finding Him: A Journey up Cold Mountain Path The Cold Mountain Road is strange no tracks of cart or horse hard to recall which merging stream or tell which piled-up ridge a myriad plants weep with dew the pines all sigh the same here where the trail disappears form asks [...]
Hasankeyf – Another Ancient City to be Destroyed
HASANKEYF, Turkey- The history of Hasankeyf goes back 10,000 years. This is over two times longer than the Giza pyramids and Stonehenge, and makes the glorious civilizations of the Maya and Inca seem as if they were flourishing just yesterday. Hasankeyf is one of the oldest places in the world. But this ten millennium run will soon meet [...]
Cross Walk in Connecticut – from Maine to Mexico – Part 3
MYSTIC, Connecticut - "The more little miracles I witness the more I believe in the big ones," Tom spoke as we sat on the side of highway 1, a tick east of Mystic, Connecticut. Thomas Helling was wearing a t-shirt with a large star of David printed upon it's front in bright blue that had, "Jesus loves you," superimposed over it.
Cross Walk in Connecticut – from Maine to Mexico -Part 2
MYSTIC, Connecticut -Thomas Helling grunted a little as he picked the heavy 10 foot high wooden cross up from the side of the highway and hoisted it to his shoulder. Jesus’ instruction to his disciples was “Walk on.”
WWOOFing Organic Farm Work in Argentina
SAN ANDRES DE GILES, Argentina- Argentina's economy was built on farming, on its famous beef, exported to Europe by the shipload.
- Canadian Bicyclist Trades Farmwork for Accommodation
A Cross America – Spiritually Intoxicated Ex-Addict Walks from Maine to Mexico
BANGOR, Maine - "Howdy sir!, Where are you hauling that big cross off to?" I rhetorically called out to a man walking down Maine highway 1A with a full sized Jesus cross slung over his shoulder. "To Mexico!" he responded, as he momentarily halted his hike to shake my hand. To Mexico. Why is it [...]
Carving into the Ancient: Woodcarvers in India
JAIPUR, India- I was picked up in the morning at the front gate of the Rajasthan Hotel by the master wood carver, Umesh Singh, and we rode off on his motorcycle through the busy streets of Jaipur. As we criss-crossed lanes of exhaust spewing traffic, dodged holy cows, honked at broken down beggars, and plowed [...]
One Motorcycle, One Man, One Long Journey
ISTANBUL, Turkey-Provisioned with a motorcycle, a camcorder, and a keen lust for discovery, Turkish adventurer, Cihan Karadag, plans to circumnavigate the entire Middle Eastern region by motorcycle, alone. He will depart from Istanbul in early June and projects that this 10,000+ kilometer journey will take more than three months to complete. Photo from Cihan Karadag [...]
Unearthing Warnings from the Maya
COPAN RUINAS, Honduras- White flecks of bone glimmered in the archaeologists’ sifting screens and the excitement among the crew was building as the remains of a human being would soon be unearthed after an undisturbed slumber of more than 1,000 years. I watched as the old Honduran archaeologist scraped off the remaining bits of parched, [...]
Graffiti In Portugal: The Other Side Of The Wall
“I write graffiti because my head and my heart demands me to write. Because I wake up and I go to bed with graffiti in my mind. Because it's the only thing that makes me forget my problems and my sadness completely. Because it makes me happy.” -Mister Dheo, Portuguese Graffiti Writer. LISBON, Portugal- Portugal: [...]
Nazis, Communism, and Wine in Moravia
HODONIN, Czech Republic- "Wine is made by god. The wine maker can only damage it," spoke the old wine maker Vlasomir Gloss, as he sipped reverentially from his glass of wine. He then paused for a second as his words took effect upon his audience, and then added with a coy smile, "Most wine makers damage [...]
- Another Concept of Journalism
Hitchhiking Around the World
HANGZHOU, China- I first met Loren Everly in the windswept, desolate city of Ulanbaatar, Mongolia. We were both staying at the Golden Gobi guesthouse and bonded when I offered him an orange (a real delicacy in the non-fertile shrublands of the Gobi) and, out of sheer courtesy, he refused to accept more than half of [...]
Tibetan Refugees in India – In a Land of No Return
BYLAKUPPE, India- In 1959, on the heels of their beloved Dalai Lama, tens of thousands of Tibetans abandoned their Chinese occupied homeland and sought refuge in India. Recognizing the atrocious nature of the Chinese invasion and subsequent colonization, along with the uncomfortable political situation in which they were placed, the Indian government absorbed the mass [...]
- In Search of a Tattoo in the New Japan
A Dying Art – Traditional Japanese Tattoo
KYOTO, Japan- It was the apex of spring in Japan: the cherry blossoms were in full bloom and the fierce winter winds had died down to a gentle, welcoming hum. I was on a bus with an acquaintance headed to Kitaoji Dori, a fashionable district in downtown Kyoto. There, I would be formally introduced to [...]
Standing on the Precipice of the Guatemalan Civil War
HEREDIA, Costa Rica- She spoke with a biting sincerity and curtness that were moving far beyond her words alone. She was a survivor, having witnessed the sharp end of life first hand. Now a professor at Long Island University’s Global College in Costa Rica, the woman who I will refer to only as La Profesora, [...]
Cockfighting in Honduras
“For it is only apparently cocks that are fighting there. Actually, it is men.” -Clifford Geertz, Notes on the Balinese Cockfight Men cheer, roosters squeal, and the evanescent smell of blood permeates the dust-filled, squalid air. The last glimmers of life were just stoked out of an uncomprehending rooster, and I stood witness to this [...]